Foul Recipe – Ful medames – fūl midammis – Vegan Spiced Fava Beans – Ful medames (Arabic: فول مدمس‎‎, fūl midammis  IPA: [fuːl meˈdæmmes]; other spellings include ful mudammas and foule mudammes), or simply fūl, is a dish of cooked fava beans served with vegetable oil, cumin, and optionally with chopped parsley, garlic, onion, lemon juice, chili pepper and other vegetable, herb and spice ingredients. It is notably a staple food in Egypt, especially in the northern cities of Cairo and Gizah. Ful medames is also a common part of the cuisines of many Arab, Middle Eastern and African cultures, including in Djibouti, Lebanon, Iraq, Syria, Libya, Palestine, Jordan, Israel, Ethiopia, Sudan, Yemen, Somalia and Saudi Arabia. This cooking method is mentioned in the Talmud Yerushalmi, indicating that the method was used in Horn of African and Middle Eastern countries since the fourth century. Although there are countless ways of embellishing fūl, the basic recipe remains the same. Once the fūl is cooked, it is salted and eaten plain or accompanied by olive oil, corn oil, butter, clarified butter, buffalo milk, béchamel sauce, basturma, fried or boiled eggs, tomato sauce, garlic sauce, tahini, fresh lemon juice, chili peppers, or other ingredients.
In the Middle Ages, the making of fūl in Cairo was monopolized by the people living around the Princess Baths, a public bath in a tiny compound near today’s public fountain of Muhammad ‘Ali Pasha, a block north of the two elegant minarets of the Mosque of Sultan Mu’ayyad Shaykh above the eleventh-century Bab Zuwaylah gate. During the day, bath-attendants stoked the fires heating the qidras, which are huge pots of bath water. Wood was scarce, so garbage was used as fuel and eventually a dump grew around the baths. When the baths closed, the red embers of the fires continued to burn. To take advantage of these precious fires, huge qidras were filled with fava beans, and these cauldrons were kept simmering all night, and eventually all day too, in order to provide breakfast for Cairo’s population. Cookshops throughout Cairo would send their minions to the Princess Baths to buy their wholesale fūl. Fūl is prepared from the small, round bean known in Egypt as fūl ḥammām (“bath beans”). The beans are cooked until very soft. Other kinds of fava beans used by Egyptian cooks are fūl rūmī (“Roman”, i.e. “European broad beans”), large kidney-shaped fava beans, and fūl baladī (“country beans”, which are of middling size). Fūl nābit (or nābid) are fava bean sprouts, fūl akhḍar (“green fūl”) are fresh fava beans, and fūl madshūsh (“crushed fūl”) are crushed fava beans. Ful medames was exported from Egypt to other parts of the Arab world, as well as other parts of Africa and Asia, but particularly to Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, Jordan, Israel, Yemen, Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan and Libya. Arabic or Middle Eastern food covers many countries and of course a wide range of recipes. The term Middle Eastern food would include countries like Iran and others but this being Persian not Arabic. The terms are wide and are often confused. Although the terms are often used and are fine, it is a little like saying Italian, Spanish or French food is European food. So a little care and understanding is needed. – – Amazing dips like hummus, baba ghanoush, classic salads such as Fattoush, Rice dishes like kabsa or machos, Lots of lamb & chicken dishes like Mandi, fish recipes Safi, Hammour & so many other & a huge amount of sweets and dates. Kebab, (also kebap, kabob, kebob, or kabab) is a Middle Eastern, Eastern Mediterranean, and South Asian dish of pieces of meat, fish, or vegetables roasted or grilled on a skewer or spit originating either in the Eastern Mediterranean, where it is mentioned by Homer or the Middle East, before spreading worldwide. In American English, kebab with no qualification refers to shish kebab cooked on a skewer, whereas in Europe it refers to doner kebab. In the Middle East, however, kebab refers to meat that is cooked over or next to flames; large or small cuts of meat, or even ground meat; it may be served on plates, in sandwiches, or as dürüm. The traditional meat for kebab is lamb, but depending on local tastes and religious prohibitions, other meats may include beef, goat, chicken, pork or fish. Like other ethnic foods brought by travellers, the kebab has remained a part of everyday cuisine in most of the Eastern Mediterranean and South Asia.

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